曹晓风,孙波,陈化榜,周俭民,宋显伟,刘小京,邓向东,李秀军,赵玉国,张佳宝,李家洋.我国边际土地产能扩增和生态效益提升的途径与研究进展[J].中国科学院院刊,2021,(3):336-348.

我国边际土地产能扩增和生态效益提升的途径与研究进展

Approaches and Research Progresses of Marginal Land Productivity Expansion and Ecological Benefit Improvement in China
作者
曹晓风
中国科学院种子创新研究院 遗传与发育生物学研究所 北京 100101
CAO Xiaofeng
Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Innovation Academy of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
孙波
中国科学院南京土壤研究所 南京 210008
SUN Bo
Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
陈化榜
中国科学院种子创新研究院 遗传与发育生物学研究所 北京 100101
CHEN Huabang
Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Innovation Academy of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
周俭民
中国科学院种子创新研究院 遗传与发育生物学研究所 北京 100101
ZHOU Jianmin
Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Innovation Academy of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
宋显伟
中国科学院种子创新研究院 遗传与发育生物学研究所 北京 100101
SONG Xianwei
Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Innovation Academy of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
刘小京
中国科学院种子创新研究院 遗传与发育生物学研究所 北京 100101
LIU Xiaojing
Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Innovation Academy of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
邓向东
中国科学院种子创新研究院 遗传与发育生物学研究所 北京 100101
DENG Xiangdong
Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Innovation Academy of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
李秀军
中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所 长春 130102
LI Xiujun
Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102, China
赵玉国
中国科学院南京土壤研究所 南京 210008
ZHAO Yuguo
Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
张佳宝
中国科学院南京土壤研究所 南京 210008
ZHANG Jiabao
Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
李家洋
中国科学院种子创新研究院 遗传与发育生物学研究所 北京 100101
LI Jiayang
Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Innovation Academy of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
中文关键词
         边际土地;产能提升;生态保护;可持续利用;资源清单;土壤障碍;抗逆品种;功能微生物;生态农场模式
英文关键词
        marginal land;productivity improvement;conservation;sustainable exploitation;resource database;soil obstacle;resistant variety;functional microorganism;ecological farmland
中文摘要
        边际土地是指由于土壤障碍限制突出、水热资源约束强、地形条件局限大,导致农业产能和经济效益低下、生态脆弱的土地。我国耕地缺口约7亿亩,而现有11.7亿亩(7 800万公顷)边际土地是我国耕地的战略后备资源,藏粮于边际土地是国家粮食安全战略保障体系的重要一环。利用植物-土壤-微生物互作机制协同提升边际土地产能和生态功能已经成为国际研究的新趋势,包括选育适应高强度土壤胁迫的耐逆作物品种,筛选可利用的根际促生菌以提升植物耐逆适生性能,挖掘和强化微生物提升土壤质量和健康的功能。针对我国边际土地产能扩增和生态效益提升问题,需要基于生态优先与绿色发展原则制定总体行动方案;设立边际土地研发专项,以“植物先行、改土为基、水分保障、微生物调控、植物-土壤-微生物生态系统集成”为思路,建立全国边际土地资源清单,制定边际土地保护和治理区划;开展边际土地耐逆适生品种选育、水肥资源高效利用、土壤障碍因子消减与土壤生物网络诱导驯化、植物-微生物交互影响4个方面的基础理论研究;聚焦黄河滩地和滨海盐土、东北苏打盐碱土、西北内陆盐碱土、南方低山丘陵红壤、西南紫色土、西北黄绵土,构建不同边际土地类型的生态农场模式。通过建立与完善边际土地生态利用理论与技术体系,促进我国边际土地资源的保护和可持续利用,并为适时启动连片分布边际土地的改造和高效利用、实现新增7亿亩中等级耕地储备目标,保障“藏粮于地、藏粮于技”和乡村振兴战略的实施,以及推进我国生态脆弱区生态文明建设提供科技支撑。
英文摘要
        Marginal land refers to the land with low agricultural productivity and economic benefit and fragile ecology due to the prominent limitation of soil barrier, strong restriction of water and heat resources as well as harsh topographic conditions. In China, the existing marginal land is about 1.17 billion mu (15 mu is equal to 1 ha), which is the most important resource of strategic emergency to deal with the cultivated land gap of 700 million mu. Marginal land storage is a major strategy for national food security. It has become a new international research trend to increase the productivity and ecological functions of marginal land by modulating the interaction between plant and soil microbial. This includes breeding high stress-tolerant plants, screening and application of plant growth promotion rhizobacteria (PGPR) to promote plant growth on marginal land, and strengthening soil microbial functions to improve soil quality and health. In view of the marginal land productivity expansion and ecological benefit improvement, it is necessary to formulate the overall action plans based on the principles of ecological priority and green development. We should carry out the marginal land R & D project with the idea of "plant first, soil-improvement as the base, water security, microbial control, and the integration of plant-soil-microbial ecological system". (1) We should build a national database of marginal land and formulate the protection and management zoning plan. (2) We should develop four aspects of basic theory research namely, stress-tolerant plants breeding and its adaptive mechanism, efficient utilization of water and fertilize, soil obstacle factor reduction and biological networks induction/acclimatization, and the interaction between plant and microbial. (3) Focusing on coastal saline-alkali land in north and east China, soda alkali-saline land in northeast China, saline-alkali land in northwest inland, yellow spongy soils slope on the loess plateau, red soil and purple soil slope land in south hilly region, we should build different types of ecological farmland by integrating various technologies and theories. This will promote the protection and sustainable utilization of marginal land resources, and support the timely launch of the efficient use of contiguous marginal land to achieve the goal of increasing productivity by adding 700 million mu of medium-high grade arable land. This will be also helpful to ensure the implementation of the strategy of "storing grain in land and technology" and rural vitalization, and the construction of ecological civilization in China's ecologically fragile areas.
DOI10.16418/j.issn.1000-3045.20201228002
作者简介
曹晓风 中国科学院院士、发展中国家科学院院士和美国科学院外籍院士。中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所研究员,中国科学院-英国约翰英纳斯中心植物和微生物科学联合研究中心共同主任,国际植物表观遗传组学专家委员会委员。长期致力于植物表观遗传调控机理研究,鉴定出多个表观遗传调控关键因子,揭示了组蛋白甲基化动态调控、精氨酸甲基化和小分子RNA在控制基因组稳定性和植物发育中的重要作用。在国际主流期刊上发表了100多篇论文。《中国科学:生命科学》副主编,以及The Plant Cell、National Science Review等杂志编委,中国女科技工作者协会副会长。曾获"中国青年女科学家" "全国优秀科技工作者",以及中国植物生理与植物分子生物学学会CSPB杰出成就奖和国家自然科学奖二等奖。
E-mail:xfcao@genetics.ac.cn
CAO Xiaofeng Distinguished Professor of the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology (IGDB),Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).She was elected as member of CAS in 2015,member of World Academy of Sciences for the advancement of science in developing countries (TWAS) in 2016,and International member of the American Academy of Sciences in 2020.Currently Dr.Cao is the Co-director of the CAS-JIC Centre of Excellence for Plant and Microbial Science,jointly established by CAS and the John Innes Centre (UK),and International Steering Committee Member of Epigenomics of Plants International Consortium (EPIC).Dr.Cao is an expert in plant epigenetics.She and her colleagues identified a dozen of key epigenetic regulators and uncovered how dynamic histone methylation,arginine methylation,and small RNAs governing genome stability and plant development.She published over 100 research papers and review articles in high profile journals.She has served as Associate Editor-in-Chief of Science China Life Sciences,and editor of The Plant Cell,National Science Review,etc.She serves as deputy director of China Women's Association for Science and Technology.She received many awards include National Outstanding Scientist Awards (2010),L'OLEAL Young Female Scientists Awards (2010),CSPB Outstanding Achievement Award of Chinese Society of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology (2019),and second prize of China's National Natural Science Award (2019).
E-mail:xfcao@genetics.ac.cn
孙波 中国科学院鹰潭红壤生态实验站(江西鹰潭农田生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站)站长,农业农村部耕地保育重点实验室常务副主任。国家重点研发计划项目首席科学家、中国科学院特聘研究员核心骨干、中国植物营养与肥料学会副理事长、江苏省土壤学会理事长、农业农村部耕地质量建设专家指导组成员。研究方向为土壤退化机制与修复技术、土壤养分循环机制与生物学调控技术,从区域尺度到团聚体尺度揭示了气候、作物、施肥和土壤对养分转化生物网络的影响机制及其调控原理,在Nature CommunicationsISME JournalMicrobe等国际主流期刊发表SCI论文80余篇,获2004年度(第6)和2011年度(第4)国家科技进步奖二等奖各1项。
E-mail:bsun@issas.ac.cn
SUN Bo Director of Yingtan Red Soil Ecological Experiment Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences (National Agro-Ecosystem Observation and Research Station in Yingtan),and the Executive Director of Key Laboratory of Arable Conservation of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs.He is the Chief Scientist of project sponsored by National Key Research and Development Program of China and the Chief Distinguished Research Fellow of CAS.He currently serves as Vice President of the Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science Society of China,President of Soil Science Society of Jiangsu,and a member of the Expert Advisory Committee for Farmland Quality Construction of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs.His research field covers soil degradation mechanism and remediation technology,soil nutrient cycling mechanism and biological regulation technology.He and his colleagues identified the influence mechanism and regulation principle from regional scale to aggregate scale of climate,crop,fertilization and soil type on nutrient transformation biological networks.He has published more than 80 research papers in world leading journals,including Nature Communications,ISME Journal and Microbe.As the main accomplisher,he was awarded second-class prizes of National Science and Technology Progress Award in 2004 and 2011,respectively.
E-mail:bsun@issas.ac.cn
张佳宝 中国工程院院士。中国科学院南京土壤研究所研究员。中国土壤学会理事长,国际土壤学联合会土壤工程与技术委员会主席。长期从事土壤物质迁移转化和水循环过程系统模拟及其生态环境效应、土壤信息快速获取、中低产田治理与地力提升理论和技术等方面的研究及其相关平台建设工作。针对我国13亿亩中低产田土壤障碍因子多、地力水平低两大难题,创建了新一代中低产田治理的理论-核心技术-支撑设备-研发平台体系。发表学术论文445篇(其中SCI收录论文165篇),出版专著6部;获国家授权专利35件、软件著作权17项;获国家科技进步奖一等奖1项、国家科技进步奖二等奖3项;以及周光召农业科学家奖、中国土壤学会奖等多项个人荣誉。
E-mail:jbzhang@issas.ac.cn
ZHANG Jiabao Distinguished Professor in soil science of Institute of Soil Science,Chinese Academy of Sciences (ISSCAS),member of Chinese Academy of Engineering,Chairman of Soil Science Society of China,Chairperson of Soil Engineering and Technology,International Union of Soil Science.His research field includes:the modeling of water and solute transports in soils and their effects on eco-environment;the monitoring of soil information;the amendment of problem soils and development of best management practices to maximize crop yield,water and fertilizer use efficienc?椠?乮慤琠畭物敮??潩浺浥甠湥楮捶慩瑲楯潮湭獥??楡???業?乡慣瑴畳爠敯?倠污慧湲瑩獣??楴???楬?偰乲?卣??楣???楈??敡汮汤?剨敩獳攠慣牯捬桬??楧??敳琠捥??潡牢?桩楳獨?灤椠潡渠敮敥牷椠湶来?睳潩牯歮猠?潦渠?灨汥慯湲瑥?慩牣捡桬椠瑡敮捤琠畴牥散?慮湯摬?浧潩汣敡捬甠汳慹牳?扥牭攠整摯椠湩杭??楯?睥愠獳?慩睬愠牣摯敮摳?灲牡楩穮整猠?楡湣捴汯畲摳椠湡杮?琠桩敮??略瑡畳牥攠?卯捩楬攠湩据敨?偲牥楮穴攠?楲湯??っ???瑩桴敹?呦慯湲??愶栠??敬敬?卯据椠敨湥捣整??睥慳爠摯?椠湭??つ????桮楤渠慬?獷?乹慩瑥楬潤渠慡汲?乢慬瑥甠牬慡汮?匠捩楮攠湃捨敩??眮慈牥搠???椠牰獵瑢?偩牳楨穥敤??椠湢??に???瑮桤攠?儴椵甠獰桥楥?伭畲瑥獶瑩慥湷搠楡湲杴?卣捬楥敳渠琨楩普楣捬?剤敩獮敧愠爱挶栵?呓敃慉洠??睤慥牸摥?椠湰??づ???琻桨敡?传畢瑥獥瑮愠湧摲楡湮杴?卤挠椳攵渠捰敡?慥湮摴?吠敡据桤渠漱氷漠杳祯??捷桡楲敥癳攬浡敮湤琠?偯牮椠穡攠?潩晲?瑴栠数??桺楥渠敡獮敤??挠慳摥散浯祮?漠晰?卩捺楥敳渠捯敦猠?楡湴??の???慓湣摩??档楥渠慡?獤?乔慥瑣楨潮湯慬汯?乹愠瑐畲牯慧汲?即捳椠敁湷捡敲??眼慢牲搾??卭敡捩潬渺摪?偺牨楡穮敧??楳湳???ち???扮爮???派愼楢氾?檶礋氼椯?朾攠渭旽瓑楦换獢?愬揑?挭滽家科学院、美国科学院、德国科学院、欧洲分子生物学组织、国际欧亚科学院、英国皇家学会等国际学术组织院士或外籍院士。中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所研究员。长期从事高等植物生长发育与代谢的分子遗传学研究,阐明高等植物株型形成的分子基础和影响重要农艺性状的主要代谢途径;致力于水稻与橡胶草的分子品种设计,培育高产优质、高抗稳产、高效安全新品种。主要研究成果发表在NatureScienceCellNature GeneticsNature BiotechnologyNature CommunicationsNature PlantsCell Research等国际权威学术刊物。曾获国家自然科学奖二等奖、中国科学院杰出科技成就奖、国家自然科学奖一等奖、求是科技成就集体奖、陈嘉庚科学奖和未来科学大奖等奖励。
E-mail:jyli@genetics.ac.cn
LI Jiayang Member of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS),World Academy of Sciences for the advancement of science in developing countries (TWAS),and German Academy of Sciences;Foreign Associate of the American National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society.Professor of the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology (IGDB),CAS.Prof.Li is mainly working on plant molecular genetics,developmental biology,and metabolism,with focuses on rice plant architecture and starch biosynthesis,rational design of superior varieties of rice,and biosynthesis of natural rubber in dandelion.He has made seminal contributions in the molecular design of new elite rice varieties through rational design and developed elite rice varieties with improved important agronomic traits including higher yield,superior quality,and better resistance to stresses.The findings and achievements have been published in world leading journals,including Nature,Science,Cell,Nature Genetics,Nature Biotechnology,???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
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