孙昌璞.量子力学诠释与波普尔哲学的“三个世界”[J].中国科学院院刊,2021,(3):296-307.

量子力学诠释与波普尔哲学的“三个世界”

Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics and Karl Popper's Three Worlds
作者
孙昌璞
1 中国工程物理研究院研究生院 北京 100193;
2 北京计算科学研究中心 北京 100193
SUN Changpu
1 Graduate School of China Academy of Engineering Physics, Beijing 100193, China;
2 Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100193, China
中文关键词
         物质一元论;哥本哈根诠释;三个世界;客观知识;客观量子测量
英文关键词
        material monism;Copenhagen interpretation;three worlds;objective knowledge;objective quantum measurement
中文摘要
        基于“物质一元论”的观点,文章阐述了量子力学如何描述微观世界的客观属性。文章认为,由于采用了不具唯一性的波包塌缩假设,哥本哈根诠释对哲学基本问题构成的挑战并非根本性的,有人由此得到物质-意识不可分的结论在科学和哲学都是不严谨的。针对卡尔·波普尔“三个世界”哲学,文章基于量子测量理论描述了多个观察者如何对微观系统进行探测,形成客观的量子测量,产生微观世界的客观知识,从而对波普尔的客观知识世界(世界3)给出了基于量子力学本体论的哲学解读:物质世界(世界1)与精神感知世界(世界2)的物化载体(认识主体)相互作用,形成二者的关联和纠缠,它们对应了主观世界在内的精神感知全体,其中具有客观性的部分构成了微观世界的客观知识。文章还指出,伴随着微观系统客观知识世界的形成,信息从物质世界流向主观客体,信息流的指向定义了不同于通常物质世界的精神感知的物化载体。
英文摘要
        Base on the view of material monism, this paper explains how quantum mechanics describes the objectivity of the microscopic world. It points out that the challenge posed by the Copenhagen interpretation to the fundamental problem of philosophy is not essential, due to its adoption of the wave-packet collapse hypothesis which is non-unique to implement repeatable measurement. Therefore, the conclusion that matter and consciousness are inseparable is not rigorous either from scientific or from philosophical perspective. With regard to Karl Popper's philosophy of "three worlds", our quantum theory of measurement describes how the multiple observers probe into the micro system to obtain the objective knowledge about the microworld with objective quantum measurements, thus gives an ontological interpretation to the objective knowledge world (World 3) of Popper:the material world (World 1) interacts with the materialized carrier of spiritual perception world (World 2), forming the correlations or entanglements between the two worlds. These correspond to all mental perception including the subjective world. Here, the objective part, which can be defined by the objective quantum measurement, constitutes the objective knowledge world (World 3) of micro system. As the objective knowledge world emerges, the information flows from the material world to the subjective object. The direction of information flow defines the materialized carrier of spiritual perception, that is different from the usual material world.
DOI10.16418/j.issn.1000-3045.20210201003
作者简介
孙昌璞 中国科学院院士,发展中国家科学院院士。中国工程物理研究院研究生院院长,北京计算科学研究中心教授。长期从事量子物理、数学物理及量子信息基础理论研究。近年主要从事有限系统和生命过程中的量子相干效应和复杂系统的可靠性等研究,积极探索国家需求牵引的基础研究模式创新。国家自然科学基金委员会委员和国家自然科学基金第七届"理论物理专款"学术领导小组组长,中国科学院哲学研究所学术委员会主任。组织参与我国物理学科战略规划工作,如《未来10年中国学科发展报告·物理学》《国家自然科学基金委员会物理领域"十三五"规划》等。发表学术论文300余篇,被引用近14 000次。荣获国家自然科学奖二等奖和美国科学信息研究所(ISI)"经典引文奖"等奖励,以及全国先进工作者等荣誉称号。
E-mail:suncp@gscaep.ac.cn
SUN Changpu Member of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS),Member of the World Academy of Sciences for the advancement of science in developing countries (TWAS),Dean of Graduate School of China Academy of Engineering Physics,and Professor of Beijing Computational Science Research Center.His research interests include quantum physics,mathematical physics,and quantum information processing.In recent years,he mainly explored photon transmission in low-dimensional structures,quantum coherence effects in biological processes,and reliability of complex systems,etc.He is also exploring the model innovation of basic research driven by national demands.At present,he is a member of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC),leader of the Academic Leading Group for the seventh Theoretical Physics Special Fund of NSFC,and also director of the Academic Committee of the Institute of Philosophy,CAS.He has participated in the strategic planning of China's physics discipline,such as "China's Discipline Development Report in the Next 10 Years-Physics" and "13th Five-Year Plan for Physics of National Natural Science Foundation of China".He has published more than 300 academic papers,with nearly 14 000 times cited.He achieved many prizes including the second prize of National Natural Science Award in China,Citation Classic Award by Institute for Scientific Information (ISI),the National Model Employee of China,etc.
E-mail:suncp@gscaep.ac.cn
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