Progress, Problems and Countermeasures of Promoting Construction of “Zero-waste City” in China
        孟小燕 王毅
        zero-waste city, pilot construction, solid waste management, suggestion
        “无废城市”建设是从城市整体层面深化我国固体废物综合管理改革的有力抓手,是提升生态文明、 建设美丽中国的重要举措。2019 年,国务院印发《“无废城市”建设试点工作方案》;为落实该方案要求, 生态环境部筛选了“11+5”个城市和地区开展首批试点工作。文章在深入调研的基础上,对试点建设取得 的阶段进展进行了总结,并分析了存在的突出问题和挑战。研究表明,近 2 年来,各试点因地制宜、积极探 索,取得了初步成效,形成了一批可复制、可推广的典型经验模式,但也面临着战略规划和顶层设计缺乏、 管理体制运行不畅、法律法规体系不健全、经济激励和市场化机制不完善、技术创新不足等诸多挑战。在 “十四五”及未来中长期深入系统推进“无废城市”建设过程中,一方面要加强顶层设计和统筹协调,重视 资源节约与减废、降碳的协同效应,将发展循环经济作为重要路径;另一方面,为了加快形成长效机制,需 加强前端减量化、资源化管理的法律法规标准体系建设,综合运用价格机制、财税政策、金融等经济手段建 立市场化机制,并加强科技创新及应用转化,形成可持续的商业模式。
        Developing “Zero-waste City” is a powerful starting point for deepening solid waste comprehensive management reform from the overall city level, and is an important measure to promote ecological civilization and build a beautiful China. In 2019, the State Council issued the Working Plan for the Pilot Construction of “Zero-waste City”. In order to implement this plan, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment selected “11+5” cities and regions to carry out the first batch of pilot projects. On the basis of in-depth investigations, the progress of the pilot construction and analyzes the outstanding problems and challenges are summarized. Studies have shown that in the past two years, the pilots have achieved preliminary results, and formed a number of typical experience models that can be replicated and promoted. Nevertheless, there still are many challenges such as lack of strategic planning and top-level design, poor management system operation, imperfect law and regulation systems, imperfect economic incentives and marketization mechanisms, insufficient technological innovation, etc. In order to systematically promote “Zero-waste City” in the future, on one hand, it is necessary to strengthen top-level design and overall coordination, pay attention to the synergistic effect of resource conservation, waste reduction, and carbon reduction, and develop circular economy as an important path. On the other hand, in order to accelerate the formation of a long-term mechanism, it is necessary to strengthen the establishment of a system of laws, regulations and standards for front-end reduction and resource management, comprehensively use price mechanisms, fiscal and tax policies, and financial means to establish a market-oriented mechanism, and strengthen technological innovation and application transformation to form a sustainable business model.
中国科学院科技战略咨询研究院助理研究员。主要从事资源环境管理与政策、循环经济与 产业生态学、生态文明与可持续发展战略等研究。近年来主持国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项 目、中国博士后科学基金项目等多项任务,参与国家重点研发计划“固废资源化”专项、国家高端 智库重点课题等 10 余项重大研究项目。在国内外核心期刊上发表论文 20 余篇,参编专著 6 部,获 国家计算机软件著作权 3 项;参与多项中央政府和国家部委生态环境管理方面的文件、政策建议的 研究和起草。
E-mail: mengxiaoyan@casisd.cn
MENG Xiaoyan
Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Institutes of Science and Development, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Her research focuses on resources and environmental management and policies, circular economy and solid waste resource management, ecological civilization and sustainable development strategies, etc. In recent years, she has hosted several research projects, the sponsorship includes the National Natural Science Foundation of China, China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, etc. She has also participated in more than 10 research projects including special research program “Solid Waste Recycling” sponsored by the National Key Research and Development Plan and the National High-end Think Tank Consulting Project. More than 20 papers have been published, and 3 software copyrights have been authorized. She has been involved in drafting 6 monographs. Her research has contributed toward many of China’s current policies and institutional arrangements for ecological and environmental management.
E-mail: mengxiaoyan@casisd.cn

王 毅
第十三届全国人大常委会委员,中国科学院科技战略咨询研究院副院长兼可持续发展战略 所所长,中国科学院大学公管学院可持续发展系主任、教授,年度中国可持续发展报告组长、首席 科学家。兼任国家气候变化专家委员会副主任,国家“无废城市”建设咨询专家委员会副主任等。 主要从事生态文明建设、资源环境政策、能源与碳中和转型发展等领域的战略研究与政策系统分 析。曾主持国家科技重大专项、国家社会科学基金重大项目、中国科学院战略性先导科技专项、国 家高端智库试点重大项目等数十项科研课题。参与过多项中央和地方重大法律、规划、文件、政策 建议的研究、起草和评估工作;曾获部级科技进步奖一、二等奖和中国青年科技奖,国务院政府特 殊津贴获得者。E-mail: wangyi@casisd.cn
Member of Standing Committee of the 13th National People’s Congress of China, and Vice President of the Institutes of Science and Development, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). He is also Professor and Dean at the Department of Sustainable Development, School of Public Policy and Management, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, team leader and Chief Scientist of the Annual China Sustainable Development Report. He is also the Deputy Director of the National Expert Committee on Climate Change, Deputy Director of the National Consultative Expert Committee for Developing “Zero-waste City”, etc. His research interests include public policy and strategic study related to sustainable development, especially in the fields of green development strategy, energy and climate change policy, and comprehensive planning for resource, environment and development. His research has contributed toward many of China’s current policies and institutional arrangements for ecological civilization, environmental protection, green development and carbon neutrality strategy. He has won several ministerial-level awards and the 4th Chinese Youth Science and Technology Award, and enjoys the special government allowance. E-mail: wangyi@casisd.cn